How to quote?


1) Direct quotation (in-text)

    Using someone’s exact written or spoken words, enclosed in quotation marks.

        Zhao & Morgan (2004) argue that “a Critical Period is considered to be the period of time during which an organism displays a heightened sensitivity to certain environmental stimuli.”

2) Indirect quotation (in-text)

    Reporting someone’s written or spoken words without quoting the words exactly.

        Zhao & Morgan (2004) argue that a Critical Period is a period in which people are more sensitive to
        outside stimuli.



How to paraphrase?


To paraphrase means to say something you have read in your own words while staying true to the meaning of the source text. You will probably use this skill when you are writing an essay or paper. When you paraphrase, simply inserting synonyms for a few words in the original sentence is not enough (see example under Language Plagiarism). You have to express the idea in your own words and come up with an original, new sentence.
However, putting information from a source in your own words does not automatically mean that you are not plagiarising. Even if you write in your own words, you are still using the ideas expressed in the source text. Therefore, you should still document your source. If you do not, you are plagiarising ideas.

Secondary sources


Secondary sources are sources that are used by your sources. Sometimes, you may want to use a quote or an idea that you have not read in the original text, but as a quote in someone else’s text. It is very dangerous to use a secondary source in your own essay. First of all, it is possible that your source misquoted his or her source. In addition, the quote may have been used in a wrong context. Therefore, it is always safest to go directly to the original source. This way you are sure to quote correctly and you can read the quote in its original context.

Correct referencing (bibliography)


So how do you document your sources properly? You have to cite your sources both in the text and in a bibliography. There are different kinds of formats to document your sources, for example, APA (American Psychological Association), MLA, Chicago Manual of style, etc. 
For information (including examples) on documenting your sources in the different formats, please consult the styles' websites.


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