How to quote?
1) Direct quotation (in-text)
Using someone’s exact written or spoken words,
enclosed in quotation marks.
Zhao & Morgan (2004) argue that “a Critical Period is considered to be the
period of time during which an organism displays a heightened sensitivity to certain
2) Indirect quotation (in-text)
Reporting someone’s written or spoken words
without quoting the words exactly.
Zhao & Morgan (2004) argue that a Critical Period
is a period in which people are more sensitive to
How to paraphrase?
To paraphrase means to
say something you have read in your own words while staying true to the meaning
of the source text. You will probably use this skill when you are writing an
essay or paper. When you paraphrase, simply inserting synonyms for a few words
in the original sentence is not enough (see example under Language Plagiarism).
You have to express the idea in your own words and come up with an original, new
However, putting information from a source in your own words does
not automatically mean that you are not plagiarising. Even if you write in your
own words, you are still using the ideas expressed in the source text.
Therefore, you should still document your source. If you do not, you are
Secondary sources are sources that are used by
your sources. Sometimes, you may want to use a quote or an idea that you have
not read in the original text, but as a quote in someone else’s text. It is very
dangerous to use a secondary source in your own essay. First of all, it is
possible that your source misquoted his or her source. In addition, the quote
may have been used in a wrong context. Therefore, it is always safest to go
directly to the original source. This way you are sure to quote correctly and
you can read the quote in its original context.
Correct referencing (bibliography)
So how do you document your sources properly?
You have to cite your sources both in the text and in a bibliography. There are
different kinds of formats to document your sources, for example, APA (American
Psychological Association), MLA, Chicago Manual of style, etc.
(including examples) on documenting your sources in the different formats, please consult the styles' websites.